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當前位置:深圳市歐姆雷盾科技有限公司 » 新聞中心 » 行業資訊 » 閃電的分類與放電過程——防雷器廠家

閃電的分類與放電過程——防雷器廠家

人氣:1485發表時間:2018-06-21

    雷云中不同部分之間聚集的不同極性電荷,當積累到一定程度時,就會在云的不同部分之間、不同云團之間以及云團與地面之間產生很強的電場,該電場的強度平均可達幾千V/m,甚至高達幾萬v/m。這么強的電位梯度足以把云內外的大氣擊穿,而在云與云或云與大地之間產生瞬間強火花放電,這就是閃電。
欢乐生肖  關于閃電的類型,若按形狀來分有線狀閃電、帶狀閃電、片狀閃電、聯珠狀閃電和球狀閃電。

線狀閃電是最常見的,也是人們了解最多的。它可以發生在云際,但更多的是發生在云地之間。線狀閃電可以擊到地面,也可能達不到地面。人們看到的像樹枝分叉的線條亮光,其實通常是著干次線狀放電的重合,只不過人眼分辨不出來罷了。圖1.20(1)就是線狀閃電的照片,它與其他閃電不同的地方是線狀閃電具有特別大的電流強度,平均可達幾十千安,少數甚至可以達到200-400kA。
   如果正巧有大風吹經閃電通道的空間,線狀閃電的幾次放電通道被吹得分開來,這樣人眼看起來,似乎閃電變寬了,這就是帶狀閃電,如圖1.20(2)所示。帶狀閃電的帶寬通常大約在10m,一般比較少見。如果這種閃電擊到房屋的話,可能引起大面積的燃燒。
   片狀閃電有兩種情況,一種是線狀閃電被云體擋住了,閃電的光照亮了上部的云,或者反射的光映入人眼,這樣閃電就變成了片狀的亮光,另一種可能是出現在云上部的一種叢集的或閃爍狀的獨立放電,它經常是在雷云強度已經減弱的情況,降水趨于停止時才出現的較弱放電現象

防雷器

  LIANZHUZHUANGSHANDIANKANQILAIHAOXIANGYITIAOZAIYUNMUSHANGHUAXINGDE,HUOCHUANCHUYUNCENGERTOUXIANGDIMIANDEFAGUANGDIANLIANXIAN,YEHAOXIANGSHIYICHUANSHANGUANGDEZHENZHUXIANGLIAN,RUTU1.20(3)SUOSHI,CHUXIANLIANZHUZHUANGSHANDIANDEQINGKUANGJIWEIHANJIAN,TAJIHUDOUSHIZAIQIANGLEIBAOZHONGYICIXIANZHUANGSHANDIANZHIHOUOUERCHUXIANDE,GUANYULIANZHUZHUANGSHANDIANDECHENGYINYOUGEZHONGBUTONGDESHUOFA,QIZHONGZHIYIJIUSHIRENWEITASHIYICHUANQIUZHUANGSHANDIAN。


欢乐生肖   QIUZHUANGSHANDIANJIANCHENGQIUSHAN,SUCHENGQIULEIHUOGUNDILEI,QIWAIMAORUTU1.20(4)SUOSHI,HAOXIANGYITUANHUOQIU,ZHIJINGYIBANZAIJILIMIDAOJISHILIMI FACHUHONGSE,HUANGSEHUOLANSEDEHUOHUA。BINGYIMEIMIAOJIMIDESUDUZAIDIMIANSHANGSHUMIGAOZUOSHUIPINGYUNDONGHUOCHENGTIAOYUESHIYUNDONG。QIUZHUANGSHANDIANDESHENGMINGSHIBUCHANG,YIBANDAYUEWEIJIMIAOZHONGDAOJIFENZHONG,SUIJIXINGJIDA。YOUGUANTADECHENGYIN,GEZHONGJIESHIJUNBUNENGWANSHANSHUOMINGQITEXING,GUQIJINWEIZHIRENGSHIZIRANJIEZHONGDEYIGE“MI”,SHANGYOUDAIRENMENJINYIBUQUDIAOZAIYANJIU。


  RUOCONGKONGJIANWEIZHILAIFENLEI,SHANDIANYOUKEFENWEIYUNNEISHANDIAN、YUNJISHANDIANHEYUNDISHANDIAN。YIBANJIANGYUNNEISHANDIAN HEYUNJISHANDIANHECHENGFANGYUNSHAN,TAMENYURENLEIDEGUANXIBUDA。BUGUO,SUIZHUHANGKONGHANGTIANSHIYEDEFAZHAN,YIJIWEIDIANZIJISHUDEGUANGFANYINGYONG,YUNSHANDUIYURENLEIDEWEIHAIYEZHUJIANZENGDUO,XIANZAIYIJINGYINQIFANGLEIGONGZUOZHEDEGUANZHU。ZHIYUYUNDISHANDIAN,YOUJIANCHENGDISHAN,SUCHENGLUODILEI,ZEYURENLEIDEGUANXIJIWEIMIQIE,SHIFANGLEIYANJIUDEZHUYAODUIXIANG。


  ZAILEIYUNFANGDIANQIAN,YUNZHONGWUZHUANGSHUIDIZHIJIANYUANBENSHIJUEYUANDE。DANSHI,DANGLEIBAOTIANQIDEDAQIDIANCHANGQIANGDUZENGDADAO10*4V/m CHENGDUSHIJIUKEYISHIDAQIZHONGDEDIANZIHUODEZUGOUDEDONGNENGLAIPENGZHUANGFENZI,SHIZHIDIANLI,BINGCHANSHENGXINDEDIANZILAICANYUZHUANGJIDIANLIZUOYONG,CONGERCHUXIANXUEBENGSIDEXIANXIANG,SHIKONGQICHENGWEILIANGDAODIANDETONGDAO。ZAIZHEGEDIANLIGUOCHENGZHONG,YUANZINEIBUDEDIANZIZAINENGJISHANGDEYUEQIANHUANHUIFAGUANG,ZHEXIEGUANGZIDESUDUYUANYUANDAYUDIANZIDESUDU,TAMENJIASUHEKUODALEKONGQIDEDIANLIGUOCHENG。ZHEZHONGFAGUANGDEDAODIANQITICHENGZHIWEI“LIUGUANG”HUO“QIZHU”,TAMENSHISHANDIANTONGDAODEXIANQU,DUISHANDIANDEXINGCHENGHEFAZHANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。


  YUNSHANBANSHICONGZHENGDIANHEZHONGXINQUXIANGXIAFANGFUDIANHEZHONGXINQUFACHUCHUSHILIUGUANG。DANGCHUSHILIUGUANGDAODAFUDIANHEZHONGXINQUSHI,CONGFUDIANHEZHONGXINQUFACHUBUFAGUANGDEFULIUGUANG,YANZHUCHUSHILIUGUANGDETONGDAOFANFANGXIANGXINGJIN,BALIANGGEDIANHEZHONGXINLIANTONG,YIBIANWANCHENGFANGDIANGUOCHENG。JIUZAILIANDAODEZHEYISHUNJIAN,CHUXIANCHIXUSHIJIANYUEWEI1nsDE,ZUOYOUMINGLIANGFAGUANGDEQIANGFANGDIAN,TABACHUSHILIUGUANGSHUSONGBINGCHUCUNZAITONGDAOZHONGDEDIANHEQUANBUZHONGHEDIAO,ZHECHENGZHIWEIFANCHONGLIUGUANGGUOCHENG。FANCHONGLIUGUANGDECHUANBOSUDUYAOBICHUSHILIUGUANGDECHUANBOSUDUGAOLIANGGESHULIANGJI,DAYUEZAIl0DE8CIFANGcm/sZUOYOU,FENGZHIDIANLIUKEDA1000AYICIQIANGFANGDIANSUOZHONGHEDEDIANHEDAYUEZAI0.5-35CZUOYOU。CONGDIMIANSHANGKANDAODECHANGSHIPIANZHUANGSHANDIAN。


  ZHIYUDINEI,YIBANXIANSHIYUNZHONGDEFUDIANHEZHONGXINQUYUXIACENGZHENGDIANHEZHONGXINQUZHIJIANDEQIANGDIANCHANGCHANSHENGJUBUQUYUDELIUGUANGFAZHANCHENGYUNSHANHOU,SHIDEFUDIANHEQUKUOZHANDAOLEIYUNDEXIABU。RANHOUYUNXIADUANYUDADIZHIJIANDEDIANCHANGQIANGDUZENGDA,JINLINXIADUANDEQUYUDIANCHANGQIANGDUDADAOZUIDA,YUSHIZONGYOUYIXIEDIFANGDEKONGQIBEIJICHUAN,CHUXIANXIANGXIAFAZHANDELIUGUANG,JIMIANXIANGXIAFAZHANXINGCHENGYIDUANDAODIANDETONGDAO。ZAIGAITONGDAODEQIANDUANYOUDALIANGFUDIANHE,GAIFUDIANHEJIANDUANXIAFANGDIANCHANGQIANGDUZUIDA,YINERTAYOUSHIFUJINDEDAQIBEIJICHUANDAODIANHEFAGUANG。ZHEYANGCONGYUNDEXIADUANSHENXIANGXIAFANGDEDAODIANTONGDAOBIANZHUBUXIANGXIAFAZHAN。ZHECHENGZHIWEITIJIXIANDAO。TAXIANGXIATUIJINDEPINGJUNSUDUWEI1.5 x10DE7CIFANGcm/s。DANMEIYITIJIXIANDAODETUIJINSUPIYAOBIZHEDADEDUO,YIBANWEI5xl0DE8CIFANGcm/sZUOYOU,QICHANGDUPINGJUNWEI50m, BIANHUAFANWEIZAI3-200m。


欢乐生肖  TIJIXIANDAOMEIXIANGXIATUIJINYIJIDOUYAOJIANGEYIJISHIJIAN,YIBIANBADIANHESHUSONGDAOQIANDUAN,XINGCHENGJICHUANDAQISUOXUYAODEJUBUQIANGDIANCHANG。GAIJIANGESHIJIANPINGJUNZAI50μsZUOYOU,BIANHUAFANWEI30-125pus。TIJIXIANDAODETONGDAOZHIJINGJIAODA,YIBANZAI1-10mZHIJIAN。TIJIXIANDAODEXINGZHUANGZONGSHIYIDUANDUANDE,SHIFANGXIANGJIBUQUEDINGDEZHEXIAN,BINGCHANGDAIYOUJITIAOFENCHA,SUIJIXINGHENDA,ERJUEBUSHIXUNZHUDAQIDIANCHANGDEFANGXIANGCHUIZHIXIANGXIADE,ZHEFANYINGCHUZAOCHENGKONGQIJICHUANDESUIJIXING。QIJICHUAN


點和方向總是大氣中導電粒子較多的局部區城,也可能是宇宙射線的高能粒子通過附近,為擊穿創造了條件。

欢乐生肖  TIJIXIANDAODETONGDAO,CHULEQIANDUANDAIYOUDALIANGDEFUDIANHEZHIWAI,TONGDAOLIHUANYOUDAODIANLIZI。TONGSHI,LEIYUNZHONGDEFUDIANHEYEBEISHUSONGDAOZHENGGETONGDAOZHONG,TAXIEDAIDEDIANLIUDAYUEWEI100-200AJINGGUODUOCIFANGDIAN、XIAOSHI、ZAIFANGDIAN、ZAIXIAOSHI,TIJIXIANDAODETONGDAOQIANDUANYIJINGDAODALIDIMIANHENJIN(DAYUE30-40m)DEJULI,ZHESHITADEQUXIANGKAISHISHOUDIMIANWUTIDEYINGXIANG。TONGDAOQIANDUANYUDIMIANWUTIZHIJIANXINGCHENGHENQIANGDEDAQIDIANCHANG。YOUYUDIMIANZHOUWEIDEDIANHEKEYIYINJINGDIANGANYINGER


大量集中到離先導前端較近的地方來,這樣使之發生電擊穿。此時從
地物體沖出一股明亮無比的光性,沿省由梯級先導開辟的、高度電離的通道向上竄,沖向雷云,以完成一次回擊放電,如圖1.21 (1)所示。

防雷器

  HUIJICHANGCHENGWEIZHUFANGDIANZHENGZHUSHANJI,YINWEIZHEGEFANGDIANCHABUDUOBALEIYUNSHUSONGDAOZHENGGEXIANDAOTONGDAOZHONGDEFUDIANHEDOUZHONGHEWANLE。ZHUFANGDIANDEDIANLIUZUIDAZHIKEDADAO10000AZUOYOU。YOUYUDAODIANTONGDAOSHIXIANCUNDE,SUOYIHUIJIDETUIJINSUDUDANGRANBITIJIXIANDAODETUIJINSUDUKUAIDEDUO,QIPINGJUNSUDUDAYUEWEI5x10DE9CIFANGcm/s,BIANHUAFANWEIZAI2x10DE9CIFANG-2x10DE10CIFANGcm/s。DANSHIHUIJITONGDAODEZHIJINGQUEBITIJIXIANDAOTONGDAODEZHIJINGXIAODEDUO,PINGJUNZHIYOUJILIMI,


變化范圍在0.1-2.3cm。它與內電電流的大小有關,而回擊通道的溫度則可達到10000K數量級。

YOUYUYUNZHONGDAIDIANLIZISHIBEIJUEYUANDEKONGQIXIANGHUFENGEDE,BUNENGXIANGDIMIANSHANGDIANHENEIYANGKEYIZIYOULIUDONG,YINCIYICIHUIJIBUKENENGJIANGLEIYUNZHONGDEDIANHEWANQUANZHONGHEDIAO。ZHEYANGDANGDIYICISHANJIFANGDIANHOU,YUNZHONGDIANHEYOUTONGGUOXINGCHENGDAODIANTONGDAO、ZHUANYIDIANHE、ZHONGXINJUJIDAOFUDIANHEZHONGXIN。RANHOUJINJIEZHUCONGYUNDUANYOUSHENCHUYITIAOJIAOANDEGUANGZHU,YANZHUTIJIXIANDAOKAIPIDEDAODIANTONGDAOZHICHONGXIAMI,ZHONGJIANBUZAIXIEXI,ZHECHENGZHIWEI“ZHICUANXIANDAO”,RUTU1.21(2)SUOSHI。TADAIZHU


DAYUE1000ADIANLIUYIDAYUE1x10DE8CIFANG-2.1x10DE9CIFANG (PINGJUNWEI2.6x10DE8CIFANG) cm/sDESUDUCHONGXIANGDIMIAN。YOUYUDAODIANTONGDAOSHIYUANYOUDE,SUOYIZHICUANXIANDAODEDIANLIUHESUDUDOUBITIJIXIANDAODEDA。DANGTADAODADIMIANSHANGKONGYIDINGJULIHOU,ZAICIYINFADIMIANCUANQIDEHUIJI,YUSHICHUXIANDIERCISHANJIFANGDIAN。


欢乐生肖LIANGDAXIANGJISHANJIZHIJIANZAILEIYUNZHONGFASHENGDEDIANGUOCHENGRUTU1.22SUOSHI。GENJULEIYUNDEDIANHELIANG,KENENGHUANYOUDISANCI,DISICIYI-SHANJIFANGDIAN,SHIJIGUANCEDAODECISHUZUIDUODEDADAO42CI。DANGRANYOUXIEDIQUZAIMOUXIEQINGKUANGXIA,SHANDIANZHIBAOHANLEYICISHANJIFANGDIAN,ZHECHENGZHIWEI“DANSHANJIDISHAN”。XIANGDUIDEDUOCISHANJIFANGDIANZECHENGZHIWEIDUOSHANJIDISHAN”, SUCHENG“DUOZHONGLEIJI。DUOSHANJIDISHANZHONGGEGESHANJIJIANDEJIANGESHIJIANPINGJUNWEI50ms,BIANHUAFANWEIWEI3ms-380msYICIDISHANDETEXUSHIJIANPINGJUNWEI0.2sZUOYOU,BIANHUAFANGUOWEI0.01s-2s。HOUXUDEGECIFANGDIANQINGKUANGJIBENSHANGYUDIERCISHANJIFANGDIANXIANGSI。DIYICISHANJIFANGDIANSHIFANGDEZONGZHIKEDAJIWANJIAOER。YOUYUMEICISHANJIFANGDIANDOUYAOXIAOHAOLEIYUNZHONGDEDIANHE,SUOYIHOUXUSHANJIFANGDIANDEQIANGDUYUELAIYUERUO,ZUIHOUZHIZHILEIYUNZHONGDEDIANHEWANQUANXIAOHAOWEIZHI。


 


  主閃擊放電通道很小,閃電釋放的能量大部分都用于加熱通道內的空氣柱上,使空氣的溫度在幾微秒內急劇上開到上萬攝氏度。溫度劇增造成通道內的氣壓猛增到100個大氣壓以上,于是空氣柱內空氣急劇膨張。膨脹后溫度又很快下降,壓力又隨之降低,因而空氣又急劇收縮,這樣空氣的驟脹驟縮便形成沖擊波。該波向外傳播的速度遠大于聲波,但很快就衰破下來,轉化成聲波,這就是伴隨閃電的雷聲。由于云對雷聲的多次反射,從面形成雷聲隆隆不斷。


  大氣中,光的傳播速度遠遠大于聲波的傳播速度,因此人們總是先看到閃電面后才聽到雷聲。當閃電很遠時,聲波可能完全被衰破或折射,這樣就只見閃電而不聞雷聲。聽不到雷聲的遠處閃電,稱之為閃電或遠閃,而聽得到雷聲的閃電,通常則稱之為雷暴或近雷暴。


 

 

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易龍防雷科技